Designed by Brutalist architect Rodney Gordon in 1959 and built two years later, the Faraday Memorial is a box-shaped structure of stainless steel with a concrete frame, located on the northern roundabout of the Elephant and Castle gyratory system. It commemorates the pioneer scientist Michael Faraday (1791–1867), who was born in nearby Newington Butts. Faraday contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry, developing the main principles that underpin electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis. The interior of the memorial contains a London Underground electricity substation for the Northern and Bakerloo lines. Gordon originally intended the structure to be clad in glass so that the workings of the transformer could be seen, making a vivid connection between electricity’s applications in the modern world and one of the key minds responsible for their discovery. However, fear of vandalism prevented the use of glass so the casing was changed to metal. Other aspects of Gordon's design that explained the connection to Faraday were also omitted, so that, ultimately, few people understood its purpose or meaning. In 1996, however, the monument was given Grade II listed building status.